Handbook on Physical Properties of Semiconductors: Volume 3: II–VI Compound Semiconductors
Very high electron mobility , electron velocity and ballistic length.
Transistors can operate below 0. Terahertz frequencies maybe achievable. Nanoparticles used as quantum dots. Intrinsic n-type, difficult to dope p-type, but can be p-type doped with nitrogen. Possible use in optoelectronics. Tested for high-efficiency solar cells. Used in solar cells with CdTe. Common as quantum dots. Crystals can act as solid-state lasers. When doped, can act as a phosphor. Used in solar cells with CdS. Used in thin film solar cells and other cadmium telluride photovoltaics ; less efficient than crystalline silicon but cheaper.
High electro-optic effect , used in electro-optic modulators. Nanoparticles usable as quantum dots. Intrinsic n-type, p-type doping is difficult. Heavy aluminium, indium, or gallium doping yields transparent conductive coatings; ZnO:Al is used as window coatings transparent in visible and reflective in infrared region and as conductive films in LCD displays and solar panels as a replacement of indium tin oxide. Resistant to radiation damage. Possible use in LEDs and laser diodes. Possible use in random lasers.
Used for blue lasers and LEDs. Easy to n-type doping, p-type doping is difficult but can be done with e. Common optical material in infrared optics. Band gap 3. Can be doped both n-type and p-type. Used in solar cells, components of microwave generators, blue LEDs and lasers. Used in electrooptics. Together with lithium niobate used to generate terahertz radiation. Cuprous chloride. Used in infrared detectors for thermal imaging. Nanocrystals usable as quantum dots. Good high temperature thermoelectric material. Mineral galena , first semiconductor in practical use, used in cat's whisker detectors ; the detectors are slow due to high dielectric constant of PbS.
Oldest material used in infrared detectors. At room temperature can detect SWIR, longer wavelengths require cooling. Low thermal conductivity, good thermoelectric material at elevated temperature for thermoelectric generators. Tin sulfide SnS is a semiconductor with direct optical band gap of 1. It is a p-type semiconductor whose electrical properties can be tailored by doping and structural modification and has emerged as one of the simple, non-toxic and affordable material for thin films solar cells since a decade.
PbSnTe [ dubious — discuss ]. Thallium tin telluride. Thallium germanium telluride. Efficient thermoelectric material near room temperature when alloyed with selenium or antimony. Narrow-gap layered semiconductor. High electrical conductivity, low thermal conductivity. Topological insulator.
Cadmium phosphide. N-type intrinsic semiconductor. Very high electron mobility. Used in infrared detectors, photodetectors, dynamic thin-film pressure sensors, and magnetoresistors. Recent measurements suggest that 3D Cd 3 As 2 is actually a zero band-gap Dirac semimetal in which electrons behave relativistically as in graphene.
Cadmium antimonide. Titanium dioxide , anatase. Titanium dioxide , rutile. Titanium dioxide , brookite. One of the most studied semiconductors. Many applications and effects first demonstrated with it. Formerly used in rectifier diodes, before silicon. High Seebeck coefficient , resistant to high temperatures, promising thermoelectric and thermophotovoltaic applications.
Bismuth trioxide. Ferroelectric , piezoelectric. Used in some uncooled thermal imagers. Used in nonlinear optics.
Handbook on Physical Properties of Semiconductors (2004. 1472 p.) [Hardcover]
Used in varistors. Conductive when niobium -doped. Ferroelectric, piezoelectric, shows Pockels effect. Wide uses in electrooptics and photonics. Lanthanum copper oxide. Magnetic, diluted DMS . Gallium manganese arsenide. Indium manganese arsenide. Cadmium manganese telluride. Lead manganese telluride. Lanthanum calcium manganate. Europium II oxide. Copper indium selenide , CIS. Silver gallium sulfide.
Zinc silicon phosphide. Arsenic trisulfide Orpiment. Arsenic sulfide Realgar. Used in infrared astronomy. High stability, low drift, used for measurements. Low quantum efficiency. Used in some gamma-ray and x-ray detectors and imaging systems operating at room temperature. Used as a real-time x-ray image sensor.
Mineral pyrite. Used in later cat's whisker detectors , investigated for solar cells. Copper zinc tin sulfide , CZTS. Copper zinc antimony sulfide , CZAS. Copper zinc antimony sulfide is derived from copper antimony sulfide CAS , a famatinite class of compound. Copper tin sulfide , CTS. Cu 2 SnS 3 is p-type semiconductor and it can be used in thin film solar cell application. Certain thicknesses of superlattices have direct band gap.
Adjustable band gap. Aluminium gallium arsenide. Used as a barrier layer in GaAs devices to confine electrons to GaAs see e. AlGaAs with composition close to AlAs is almost transparent to sunlight. Indium gallium arsenide. Well-developed material. Can be lattice matched to InP substrates. Use in infrared technology and thermophotovoltaics.
Indium content determines charge carrier density. Used in infrared sensors, avalanche photodiodes, laser diodes, optical fiber communication detectors, and short-wavelength infrared cameras. Indium gallium phosphide. Aluminium indium arsenide. Can form layered heterostructures acting as quantum wells, in e.
Aluminium indium antimonide. Gallium arsenide nitride. Gallium arsenide phosphide. Gallium arsenide antimonide. Aluminium gallium nitride. Can be grown on sapphire. Used in heterojunctions with AlN and GaN. Aluminium gallium phosphide. Indium gallium nitride.
In x Ga 1—x N, x usually between 0. Can be grown epitaxially on sapphire, SiC wafers or silicon. Insensitive to radiation damage, possible use in satellite solar cells. Insensitive to defects, tolerant to lattice mismatch damage. High heat capacity. Indium arsenide antimonide. Indium gallium antimonide. Aluminium gallium indium phosphide. Aluminium gallium arsenide phosphide. Indium gallium arsenide phosphide. Indium gallium arsenide antimonide. Use in thermophotovoltaics. Indium arsenide antimonide phosphide.
Handbook on Physical Properties of Semiconductors (2004. 1472 p.) [Hardcover]
Aluminium indium arsenide phosphide. Aluminium gallium arsenide nitride. Indium gallium arsenide nitride. Indium aluminium arsenide nitride. Our results Fig. Nevertheless, the situation appears to be completely different when the improved VCA is used Fig. This transition is originated by L-conduction band. This transition is predicted to be originated by X-conduction band.
The refractive index n of semiconducting materials is an important parameter for the design and fabrication of devices. In the present work n has been calculated using various models all of which are based on energy gap-refractive index relations in semiconductors 25 , All energy band-gaps values considered in the calculations are taken with the improved VCA.
The experimental data reported in Ref. Note that a combination between the values of n determined for the end-point compounds AlSb and AlP indicates that the Reddy and Anjaneyulu model 28 is the most suitable to choose among the remaining models being considered in the present study. This is consistent with the result of Al-Assiri and Bouarissa The Reddy and Anjaneyulu 28 model is based on the Moss relation 25 and expressed as,. The relation 5 holds true for energy band-gaps larger than 0 eV.
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Our calculated n for AlP 0. The composition dependence of n calculated using the various models of interest is illustrated in Fig. Note that for all models being used here, n decreases with increasing x exhibiting a non linear and non-monotonic behavior. As compared to the experimental values of 9. This suggests that AlP x Sb 1-x becomes gradually a good insulator when increasing the P content. The study of electron charge distribution in semiconductors provides important information on the chemical bonding properties and interstitial impurities in the investigated materials 31 - Our results are illustrated in Figs.
Note that for zinc-blende AlSb Fig.
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This seems to be different from that reported for semiconductors with diamond structure 34 where the charge distribution is found to be equally distributed between the atomic sites. This reflects the presence of mixed-ionic-covalent bonding in the case of zinc-blende AlSb. The maximum of the electron valence charge density appears to be slightly shifted towards the anion Sb.
Thus, the main contribution to the chemical bond formation comes from the anion. A small amount of charges seems to be in the interstitial regions where it is a little bit larger in the interstitial region nearest to the cation. When more P atoms are added in AlSb Figs. Nevertheless, the charge distribution is affected both at anion and cation sites reflecting the change in the ionicity character of the materials of interest.
In addition, the maximum of the electron valence charge density decreases by increasing the P content in AlP x Sb 1-x affecting thus the contribution to the chemical bond formation. The effect of the compositional disorder on the electron total valence charge density appears to be significant as can be observed in Figs.
Hence, this effect should be taken in any calculation of the electron valence charge distribution in AlP x Sb 1-x ternary alloys. Our results are shown in Figs. Note that for AlSb Fig. Compared to the anion, the amount of charges around the cation Al is less pronounced. In the bonding region, we observe the minimum of the electron conduction charge density which is localized almost half way.
This indicates that the first conduction band charge density is antibonding and s-like in nature. The trend seems to be similar for III-V semiconductor ternary alloys A small quantity of charge can be observed in the interstitial regions but seems to be more important nearest to the cation than the anion.
In the bonding region, the situation seems to be practically constant keeping thus the antibonding and s-like in nature character for the first conduction band charge distribution in the alloys of interest. The effect of compositional disorder in AlP x Sb 1-x again is significant for the electron charge density for the first conduction band as clearly seen in Figs.
A correction was introduced to the VCA in order to take into account of the compositional disorder effect. Our results were found to be in good accord with experiment. The contribution of the compositional disorder effect to the electron band structure, direct and indirect band-gaps and electron valence and conduction charge densities in AlP x Sb 1-x was found to be important and should not be neglected.
The composition dependence of all features of interest showed a non-linear behavior. The nature of the semiconductor band-gap was found to depend on the concentration P. In agreement with previous studies, the model of Reddy and Anjaneyulu was chosen among other models being considered in the present study.
The behaviour of the high-frequency dielectric constant indicated that AlP x Sb 1-x material becomes a good insulator when more P atoms are incorporated. The behaviour of the charge distribution showed an ionic partial character for the alloys of interest. Band parameters for III-V compound semiconductors and their alloys.
Journal of Applied Physics. Band gaps and charge distribution in quasi-binary GaSb 1-x InAs x crystals. European Physical Journal B. Phonons and related crystal properties in indium phosphide under pressure. Physica B: Condensed Matter. The structural, electronic and optical properties of In x Ga 1-x P alloys. Electronic, elastic and optical properties on the Zn 1-x Mg x Se mixed alloys. Journal of Materials Science. Electronic structure and optical properties of CdSe x Te 1-x mixed crystals. Superlattices and Microstructures. IEE Proceedings - Optoelectronics.
Journal of Crystal Growth. Energy bandgap and lattice constant contours of iii-v quaternary alloys. Journal of Electronic Materials. Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Semiconductors. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; Chichester: Wiley; Energy gaps and optical phonon frequencies in InP 1-x Sb x. Semiconductor Science and Technology.
Electronic properties of Ga x In 1-x P from pseudopotential calculations. Materials Chemistry and Physics. Properties of nonlocal pseudopotentials of Si and Ge optimized under full interdependence among potential parameters. Energy band gaps for the Ga x In 1-x As y P 1-y alloys lattice matched to different substrates. Band parameters for AlAs, InAs and their ternary mixed crystals. Physica Scripta. Modulation-spectroscopy study of the Ga 1-x Al x Sb band structure. Physical Review B. Band structure of ternary compound semiconductors beyond the virtual crystal approximation.
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.
- 1. Introduction;
- Properties of semiconductor alloys: group-IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors.
- Extragalactic Radio Sources.
Effects of compositional disorder upon electronic and lattice properties of Ga x In 1-x As. Physics Letters A.